This study investigated the relationship between epistemology beliefs, conceptions of mathematics, conception of mathematics teaching and learning, instructional practices and mathematics performance among 228 preservice mathematics teachers from 5 public universities in South West Nigeria using the quantitative research method within blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive statistics of percentages, mean, and standard deviation and inferential statistics of factor analysis, independent samples t-test, and multiple regression analysis. The reliability estimated as internal consistency had an acceptable Cronbach alpha for all scales. The analysed result led to the following conclusions: (a) preservice teachers’ epistemological beliefs, conception of mathematics, conception of teaching and learning and instructional practices were a multidimensional constructs; (b) cross- cultural and contextual differences also exist in domain specific beliefs; (c) preservice teachers’ have not been properly exposed to contemporary pedagogies and as such do not ignore traditional conceptions of teaching and learning; (d) none of the variables of epistemological beliefs and conceptions of mathematics were associated with preservice teachers’ mathematics performance; (e) constructive conceptions of teaching and learning and traditional conceptions of teaching and learning made statistically significant contributions to the variance of preservice teachers’ espoused instructional practices. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are highlighted in the study.